Spelling Rules

The 31 spelling rules taught in Logic of English® curriculum.
Rule 1C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y.
Otherwise, C says /k/.
Rule 2G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y.
Otherwise, G says /g/.
Rule 3English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.
Rule 4A E O U usually say their names at the end of a syllable.
Rule 5I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable.
Rule 6When a one-syllable word ends in a single vowel Y, it says /ī/.
Rule 7Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multisyllable base word.
I says /ē/ at the end of a syllable that is followed by a vowel and at the end of foreign words.
Rule 8I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ when followed by two consonants.
Rule 9AY usually spells the sound /ā/ at the end of a base word.
Rule 10When a word ends with the phonogram A, it says /ä/.
A may also say /ä/ after a W or before an L.
Rule 11Q always needs a U; therefore, U is not a vowel here.
Rule 12Silent Final E Rules
12.1The vowel says its name because of the E.
12.2English words do not end in V or U.
12.3The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.
12.4Every syllable must have a written vowel.
12.5Add an E to keep singular words that end in the letter S from looking plural.
12.6Add an E to make the word look bigger.
12.7TH says its voiced sound /TH/ because of the E.
12.8Add an E to clarify meaning.
12.9Unseen reason.
Rule 13Drop the silent final E when adding a vowel suffix only if it is allowed by other spelling rules.
Rule 14Double the last consonant when adding a vowel suffix to words ending in one vowel followed by one consonant only if the syllable before the suffix is accented.*
*This is always true for one-syllable words.
Rule 15Single vowel Y changes to I when adding any ending, unless the ending begins with I.
Rule 16Two I’s cannot be next to one another in English words.
Rule 17TI, CI, and SI are used only at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.
Rule 18SH spells /sh/ at the beginning of a base word and at the end of the syllable. SH never spells /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending -ship.
Rule 19To make a verb past tense, add the ending -ED unless it is an irregular verb.
Rule 20-ED, past tense ending, forms another syllable when the base word ends in /d/ or /t/.
Otherwise, -ED says /d/ or /t/.
Rule 21To make a noun plural, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then add -ES.
Occasional nouns have no change or an irregular spelling.
Rule 22 To make a verb 3rd person singular, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then add -ES. Only four verbs are irregular.
Rule 23Al- is a prefix written with one L when preceding another syllable.
Rule 24-Ful is a suffix written with one L when added to another syllable.
Rule 25DGE is used only after a single vowel which says its short (first) sound.
Rule 26CK is used only after a single vowel which says its short (first) sound.
Rule 27TCH is used only after a single vowel which does not say its name.
Rule 28AUGH, EIGH, IGH, OUGH. Phonograms ending in GH are used only at the end of a base word or before the letter T.
The GH is either silent or pronounced /f/.
Rule 29Z, never S, spells /z/ at the beginning of a base word.
Rule 30 We often double F, L, and S after a single vowel at the end of a base word. Occasionally other letters also are doubled.
Rule 31 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unaccented syllable or unaccented word. O may also say /ŭ/ in an accented syllable next to a W, TH, M, N, or V.

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