The 31 spelling rules taught in Logic of English® curriculum.
|Rule 1||C always softens to /s/ when followed by E, I, or Y. |
Otherwise, C says /k/.
|Rule 2||G may soften to /j/ only when followed by E, I, or Y. |
Otherwise, G says /g/.
|Rule 3||English words do not end in I, U, V, or J.|
|Rule 4||A E O U usually say their names at the end of a syllable.|
|Rule 5||I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of a syllable.|
|Rule 6||When a one-syllable word ends in a single vowel Y, it says /ī/.|
|Rule 7||Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multisyllable base word. |
I says /ē/ at the end of a syllable that is followed by a vowel and at the end of foreign words.
|Rule 8||I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/ when followed by two consonants.|
|Rule 9||AY usually spells the sound /ā/ at the end of a base word.|
|Rule 10||When a word ends with the phonogram A, it says /ä/.|
A may also say /ä/ after a W or before an L.
|Rule 11||Q always needs a U; therefore, U is not a vowel here.|
|Rule 12||Silent Final E Rules|
|12.1||The vowel says its name because of the E.|
|12.2||English words do not end in V or U.|
|12.3||The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.|
|12.4||Every syllable must have a written vowel.|
|12.5||Add an E to keep singular words that end in the letter S from looking plural.|
|12.6||Add an E to make the word look bigger.|
|12.7||TH says its voiced sound /TH/ because of the E.|
|12.8||Add an E to clarify meaning.|
|Rule 13||Drop the silent final E when adding a vowel suffix only if it is allowed by other spelling rules.|
|Rule 14||Double the last consonant when adding a vowel suffix to words ending in one vowel followed by one consonant only if the syllable before the suffix is accented.*|
*This is always true for one-syllable words.
|Rule 15||Single vowel Y changes to I when adding any ending, unless the ending begins with I.|
|Rule 16||Two I’s cannot be next to one another in English words.|
|Rule 17||TI, CI, and SI are used only at the beginning of any syllable after the first one.|
|Rule 18||SH spells /sh/ at the beginning of a base word and at the end of the syllable. SH never spells /sh/ at the beginning of any syllable after the first one, except for the ending -ship.|
|Rule 19||To make a verb past tense, add the ending -ED unless it is an irregular verb.|
|Rule 20||-ED, past tense ending, forms another syllable when the base word ends in /d/ or /t/. |
Otherwise, -ED says /d/ or /t/.
|Rule 21||To make a noun plural, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then add -ES. |
Occasional nouns have no change or an irregular spelling.
|Rule 22||To make a verb 3rd person singular, add the ending -S, unless the word hisses or changes; then add -ES. Only four verbs are irregular.|
|Rule 23||Al- is a prefix written with one L when preceding another syllable.|
|Rule 24||-Ful is a suffix written with one L when added to another syllable.|
|Rule 25||DGE is used only after a single vowel which says its short (first) sound.|
|Rule 26||CK is used only after a single vowel which says its short (first) sound.|
|Rule 27||TCH is used only after a single vowel which does not say its name.|
|Rule 28||AUGH, EIGH, IGH, OUGH. Phonograms ending in GH are used only at the end of a base word or before the letter T. |
The GH is either silent or pronounced /f/.
|Rule 29||Z, never S, spells /z/ at the beginning of a base word.|
|Rule 30||We often double F, L, and S after a single vowel at the end of a base word. Occasionally other letters also are doubled.|
|Rule 31||Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unaccented syllable or unaccented word. O may also say /ŭ/ in an accented syllable next to a W, TH, M, N, or V.|