Essentials Scope and Sequence

Volume 1

Best viewed full screen. You may also download a PDF version (coming soon).

  • Lesson
  • Basic Phonograms
  • Exploring
  • Spelling
  • Grammar & Composition
  • Vocabulary & Morphemes
  • Advanced Phonograms

  • 1
  • All sounds of A-Z

  • Consonants, vowels, multi-letter consonants

  • 11: Q always needs a U...
    21: To make a noun plural...

  • Nouns
    Singular and plural

  • A: plurals
    B: plurals
    C: con-, pact, tract, flict, tent, plex, sist, ab-

  • 2
  • CK, EE, NG, TH

  • Short, long, & multi-letter vowels

  • 26: CK is used only after...
    29: Z, never S, spells /z/ at...

  • Adjectives

  • A: compound words
    B: -est
    C: -eer, volunt, spect, sub-, ad-, culp

  • C only: EE

  • 3
  • ER, OR, EA, SH

  • Syllables, R-controlled vowels, open & closed vowels

  • 18: SH spells /sh/ at the...
    4: A E O U usually say their long...
    21: To make a noun plural...

  • Non-Count Nouns

  • A: compound words
    B: -er, -est
    C: sym, meter, per-, re-

  • C only: CU

  • 4
  • OI, OY

  • Schwa: the lazy vowel

  • 3: English words do not end in I, U...
    21: To make a noun plural...
    31.1: Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds...

  • Article Adjectives

  • A: time
    B: -er, -est
    C: in-, mem, -ment, just

  • C only: OI

  • 5
  • AI, AY

  • Broad vowels

  • 3: English words do not end in I, U...
    9: AY usually spells...
    10: When a word ends with the phonogram A, it...
    21: To make a noun plural...

  • Irregular plurals

  • A: British & US Spelling, -er
    B: Compound words
    C: bene, -or, fact, script, manu, -al, in-, port, ex-

  • C only: AI

  • 6
  • AR, CH, OO

  • Schwa

  • 30: We often double F, L, S after a single...
    31.1: Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds...

  • Commas in a series

  • A: Compound words, balloon
    B: -less, quart
    C: part, -iff, plaint, de-, -ant, fend, pend, -er

  • C only: BT

  • 7
  • OA, OE

  • Lazy O

  • 31.2: O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable...

  • A, An
    Definite and indefinite articles

  • A: Compound words, -est
    B: -ness
    C: flue, toler

  • C only: MB

  • 8
  • IGH, WH

  • Unstressed R-controlled phonograms

  • 28: Phonograms ending in GH...
    31.3: AR and OR may say /er/ in an unstressed...

  • Commas in a series

  • A: comparitive, superlative, -ish, -ness
    B: homonyms
    C: dom, rota, terra

  • C only: OT

  • 9
  • AU, AW, AUGH

  • I and Y

  • 5: I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of...

  • Possessive noun adjectives, singular PNAs, plural PNAs

  • A: Closed compounds, hyphenated compounds, homophones
    B: -or, -ress
    C: aster, naut, -oid, -ic, med, saur, tyran, male

  • C only: AU

  • 10
  • OU, OW, OUGH

  • Phonograms with multiple sounds

  • 22: To make a verb 3rd person singular...
    24: -FUL is a suffix...

  • Sentences, Subject nouns, Verbs, Action verbs, Capitalization of sentences

  • A: -less, -ful
    B: simple present tense, present continuous tense, future tense, -ing
    C: apt, plaud, demn, cumb, dis-, cred, -ous

  • C only: MN

  • 11
  • TCH

  • Broad /ä/

  • 27: TCH is used only...
    10: When a word ends in the phonogram A...

  • Transitive verbs
    Direct objects

  • A: -er
    B: verb tense, over-
    C: struct, ob-, press, rupt, inter-, pro-, fess

  • C only: SC

  • 12
  • KN, GN

  • Vowel types

  • 8: I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/...

  • Sentence parts
    Simple subject
    Complete subject
    Simple predicate
    Complete predicate

  • A: pre-, re-
    B: homonyms, synonyms, strong verbs
    C: sign, dict, pre-, contra-, en-, velop, shroud, bark

  • C only: OUR

  • 13
  • IR, UR, EAR

  • /r/ and /er/

  • Common and proper nouns
    Titles of respect
    PNAs and irregular plurals

  • A: compound words
    B: cardinal and ordinal numbers
    C: ver, mand, sent

  • C only: EU

  • 14
  • ED, EW

  • Dividing syllables

  • 19: To make a verb past tense...
    20: -ED, past tense ending, forms another syllable when...

  • Irregular past tense verbs
    Indirect objects

  • A: un-
    B: re-, -ed
    C: trans-, render, tain

  • C only: RH

  • 15
  • UI

  • Hard and soft C
    Hard and soft G

  • 1: C always softens to /s/ after...
    2: G may soften to /j/ only after...

  • Commas and quotes
    Capitalization and quotes
    Direct quotes
    Punctuating quotes
    Indirect quotes

  • A: re-
    B: -ful
    C: bi-, annu, ocul, cept, claim

  • C only: GH

Volume 2

Lessons 16-30 are currently in development (scheduled for release in 2017).
Concepts taught will include all or most of the following:

  • Basic Phonograms


  • Exploring

    Long /ū/
    /wor/ and /wr/
    -el and le-
    vowel types
    voiced and unvoiced pairs
    stressed and unstressed syllables
    silent L
    I and Y
    single-vowel Y
    Y as a vowel, Y as a consonant
    I as a vowel, I says /ē/, I as a consonant, I says /y/
    -dge and -ge
    /sh/ and /zh/
    double consonants and vowel sounds
    assimilated consonants

  • Spelling Rules

    All remaining Spelling Rules, including:

    Silent E rules:
    12.1: The vowel says its long sound because of...
    12.2: English words do not end in V or U
    12.3: The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because...
    12.4: Every syllable must have a written vowel
    12.5: Add an E to keep singular words...
    12.6: Add an E to make the word look bigger
    12.7: TH says its voiced sound because of...
    12.8: Add an E to clarify...
    12.9: Unseen reason

    Other spelling rules:
    6: When a one-syllable word ends in a single-vowel...
    7: Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multi-syllable...
    13: Drop the silent final E when adding a vowel suffix only if...
    14: Double the last consonant when adding...
    15: Single-vowel Y changes to I when adding...
    16: Two I's cannot be next to one another in...
    17: TI, CI, and SI are used only at the beginning of...
    23: AL is a prefix written with one L when...
    25: DGE is used only after a single vowel which...

  • Grammar & Composition

    Simple sentences
    Independent clauses
    Dependent clauses
    Compound sentences
    Coordinating and subordinating conjunctions
    Comma rules
    Complex sentences
    Subject and object pronouns
    Verbs: first, second, and third person
    Linking verbs
    Predicate adjectives and predicate nouns
    Pronouns: possessive, demonstrative, reflexive
    Adverbial phrases
    Helping verbs
    Capitalization rules
    Prepositions and objects of a preposition
    Noun jobs
    Usage of two, to, too
    Verb tenses: Simple present, Present continuous, Future tense
    Irregular present tense verbs
    Verb aspect
    Sentence types: Statement, Command, Question, Exclamation
    Question words
    Coordinating adjectives
    Nouns of direct address
    Parenthetical elements

  • Vocabulary & Morphemes

    TBD. The vocabulary concepts and morphemes taught will be based on the words in the level A, B, and C spelling lists for each lesson.

  • Advanced Phonograms

    EAU, E, QU, ET, UT, EUR, AE, J, Ñ, LL, XI, AIGH, OUR, SE, GE, GI, TH, AY, CE, IE, PT, PS, PN, SCI, SCH, AH, OH, S, Z, EO, KH
    Levels A and B will learn several advanced phonograms in Volume 2 after they learn all 74 basic phonograms.
    By the end of Volume 2, students in Level C will have learned 46 advanced phonograms in addition to all 74 basic phonograms.

Shop for Essentials now! Essentials home page

Login Form