Essentials Scope and Sequence

Best viewed full screen.

  • Lesson
  • Basic Phonograms
  • Exploring
  • Spelling
  • Grammar & Composition
  • Vocabulary & Morphemes
  • Advanced Phonograms

  • 1
  • All sounds of A-Z

  • Consonants, vowels, multi-letter consonants

  • 11: Q always needs a U...
    21: To make a noun plural...

  • Nouns
    Singular and plural

  • A: plurals
    B: plurals
    C: con-, pact, tract, flict, tent, plex, sist, ab-

  • 2
  • CK, EE, NG, TH

  • Short, long, & multi-letter vowels

  • 26: CK is used only after...
    29: Z, never S, spells /z/ at...

  • Adjectives

  • A: compound words
    B: -est
    C: -eer, volunt, spect, sub-, ad-, culp

  • C only: EE

  • 3
  • ER, OR, EA, SH

  • Syllables, R-controlled vowels, open & closed vowels

  • 18: SH spells /sh/ at the...
    4: A E O U usually say their long...
    21: To make a noun plural...

  • Non-Count Nouns

  • A: compound words
    B: -er, -est
    C: sym, meter, per-, re-

  • C only: CU

  • 4
  • OI, OY

  • Schwa: the lazy vowel

  • 3: English words do not end in I, U...
    21: To make a noun plural...
    31.1: Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds...

  • Article Adjectives

  • A: time
    B: -er, -est
    C: in-, mem, -ment, just

  • C only: OI

  • 5
  • AI, AY

  • Broad vowels

  • 3: English words do not end in I, U...
    9: AY usually spells...
    10: When a word ends with the phonogram A, it...
    21: To make a noun plural...

  • Irregular plurals

  • A: British & US Spelling, -er
    B: Compound words
    C: bene, -or, fact, script, manu, -al, in-, port, ex-

  • C only: AI

  • 6
  • AR, CH, OO

  • Schwa

  • 30: We often double F, L, S after a single...
    31.1: Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds...

  • Commas in a series

  • A: Compound words, balloon
    B: -less, quart
    C: part, -iff, plaint, de-, -ant, fend, pend, -er

  • C only: BT

  • 7
  • OA, OE

  • Lazy O

  • 31.2: O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable...

  • A, An
    Definite and indefinite articles

  • A: Compound words, -est
    B: -ness
    C: flue, toler

  • C only: MB

  • 8
  • IGH, WH

  • Unstressed R-controlled phonograms

  • 28: Phonograms ending in GH...
    31.3: AR and OR may say /er/ in an unstressed...

  • Commas in a series

  • A: comparitive, superlative, -ish, -ness
    B: homonyms
    C: dom, rota, terra

  • C only: OT

  • 9
  • AU, AW, AUGH

  • I and Y

  • 5: I and Y may say /ĭ/ or /ī/ at the end of...

  • Possessive noun adjectives, singular PNAs, plural PNAs

  • A: Closed compounds, hyphenated compounds, homophones
    B: -or, -ress
    C: aster, naut, -oid, -ic, med, saur, tyran, male

  • C only: AU

  • 10
  • OU, OW, OUGH

  • Phonograms with multiple sounds

  • 22: To make a verb 3rd person singular...
    24: -FUL is a suffix...

  • Sentences, Subject nouns, Verbs, Action verbs, Capitalization of sentences

  • A: -less, -ful
    B: simple present tense, present continuous tense, future tense, -ing
    C: apt, plaud, demn, cumb, dis-, cred, -ous

  • C only: MN

  • 11
  • TCH

  • Broad /ä/

  • 27: TCH is used only...
    10: When a word ends in the phonogram A...

  • Transitive verbs
    Direct objects

  • A: -er
    B: verb tense, over-
    C: struct, ob-, press, rupt, inter-, pro-, fess

  • C only: SC

  • 12
  • KN, GN

  • Vowel types

  • 8: I and O may say /ī/ and /ō/...

  • Sentence parts
    Simple subject
    Complete subject
    Simple predicate
    Complete predicate

  • A: pre-, re-
    B: homonyms, synonyms, strong verbs
    C: sign, dict, pre-, contra-, en-, velop, shroud, bark

  • C only: OUR

  • 13
  • IR, UR, EAR

  • /r/ and /er/

  • Common and proper nouns
    Titles of respect
    PNAs and irregular plurals

  • A: compound words
    B: cardinal and ordinal numbers
    C: ver, mand, sent

  • C only: EU

  • 14
  • ED, EW

  • Dividing syllables

  • 19: To make a verb past tense...
    20: -ED, past tense ending, forms another syllable when...

  • Irregular past tense verbs
    Indirect objects

  • A: un-
    B: re-, -ed
    C: trans-, render, tain

  • C only: RH

  • 15
  • UI

  • Hard and soft C
    Hard and soft G

  • 1: C always softens to /s/ after...
    2: G may soften to /j/ only after...

  • Commas and quotes
    Capitalization and quotes
    Direct quotes
    Punctuating quotes
    Indirect quotes

  • A: re-
    B: -ful
    C: bi-, annu, ocul, cept, claim

  • C only: GH

  • 16
  • WR, EY

  • Reasons for a single letter to say its long sound

  • 12.1: The vowel says its long sound because of the E
    13: Drop the silent final E when adding...

  • Pronouns
    Subject pronouns

  • A: over-, under-
    B: -ous, -or, -er
    C: plat, form, trib, script

  • C only: EAU

  • 17
  • WOR

  • C or K?

  • 12.2: English words do not end in V or U.
    12.3: The C says /s/ and the G says /j/ because of the E.

  • First, second, & third person
    Object pronouns

  • A: mis-
    B: -ive, -ment
    C: verge, dis-, sequ, -ant, -ent, -ance, -ence, -ive, -itive

  • C only: AY, E

  • 18
  • PH

  • Single or double consonant?

  • 12.4: Every syllable must have a written vowel
    12.5: Add an E to keep singular words...
    13: Drop the silent final E when adding...

  • Prepositions
    Object of the preposition

  • A: phone, -able
    B: -able, graph, photo
    C: merge, uni-, verse, -able

  • All: EO
    C only: QU

  • 19
  • EI, EIGH

  • Voiced and unvoiced pairs
    Silent L

  • 12.6: Add an E to make the word look bigger
    TH says its voiced sound /TH/ because of the E

  • Placing prepositional phrases
    Sentence styles, simple sentences
    Clauses, independent clauses

  • A: Derivatives of down
    B: therm, meter, stat
    C: rid, min, fend, quire, sense

  • C only: ET, UT

  • 20
  • CEI

  • Vowel types

  • 12.8: Add an E to clarify meaning
    12.9 Unseen reason

  • Coordinate adjectives
    Commas with coordinate adjectives

  • A: Homographs
    B: -al
    C: ceive, micro, scope, tele-, pose, cycle

  • C only: EUR

  • 21
  • BU, GU

  • The sounds of -ES

  • 6: When a one-syllable word ends in a single-vowel Y...
    7.1 Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multi-syllable word...
    15: Single-vowel Y changes to I...
    16: Two I's cannot be next to one another...

  • Adverbs
    Capitalize proper nouns

  • A: -ly
    B: -ly
    C: -logy, bio, geo, graph, ply

  • C only: AE

  • 22
  • IE

  • I says /ē/
    I says /y/

  • Exceptions to Y changes to I
    7.2 I may say /ē/...

  • Linking verbs
    Predicate adjectives
    Predicate nouns

  • A: Contractions with forms of be
    B: Words with multiple suffixes
    C: ped, tri-, tempo, audi

  • C only: J

  • 23
  • DGE

  • -dge or -ge

  • 25: DGE is used only after a single vowel which...
    Adding suffixes to words ending in DGE

  • Linking verbs
    Possessive pronouns

  • A: There, their, they're. Pronoun or contraction?
    B: -age; Daily
    C: chron, criti, para, strophe, cata-

  • C only: Ñ, QU, LL

  • 24
  • TI, CI, SI

  • /d/ and /ZH/

  • 17: TI, SI, and CI are used only at the beginning of...
    18: SH spells /sh/ at the beginning of a...

  • Helping verbs
    Verb tense

  • A: Contractions with will. Derivatives of act. Usage of two, to, too.
    B: -ion
    C: vis, -ion-, -ian, clude, techn

  • C only: XI

  • 25
  • Stressed and unstressed syllables

  • 14: Double the last consonant when...

  • Verb aspect

  • A: tour. Contractions with have.
    B: en-, dis-
    C: journ, -ation, -ition, medi

  • All: AIGH, OUR
    C only: YR, CC

  • 26
  • Identifying shifting syllable stress in related words

  • 14: Double the last consonant when...
    Using the Suffixing Flow Chart

  • Coordinating conjunctions
    Compound sentences

  • A: Contractions with would. Derivatives of forget.
    B: verb tense, quali
    C: fer, vac

  • All: GE, GI
    C only: TH, KH

  • 27
  • Dividing syllables
    Single and double consonants in the middle of the word

  • 23: AL is a prefix written with one L when...

  • Sentence types
    Nouns of direct address
    Commas with nouns of direct address

  • A: Contractions with not. Compounds with eye
    B: -ize
    C: cline, mot, cypt

  • All: CE
    C only: PT, PS, PN

  • 28
  • Assimilation with U

  • Adding suffixes to words that end with O

  • Exclamations
    Punctuating exclamations and interjections

  • A: quest-
    B: cent
    C: mit, nate, frag

  • All: SC
    C only: SCI, SCH

  • 29
  • Assimilation between words

  • SE or CE?

  • Questions
    Question words
    Who and whom

  • A: who's vs. whose. Compounds with where.
    B: -ation. Please and pleasant.
    C: poli, magn, phil

  • All: S
    C only: AH, OE

  • 30
  • Adding K to words ending in C before suffixes
    Shades of sound

  • Adding suffixes to words ending with IE

  • Complex sentences
    Dependent clauses
    Subordinating conjunctions
    Commas and subjordinating conjunctions

  • A: -ful
    B: -en
    C: migr, aqua, lum, mech

  • All: Z, ZZ
    C only: AA, GN, EI

Shop for Essentials now! Essentials home page

Login Form