Phonogram and Spelling Rule Quick Reference
The OUGH section is missing 3 words in the printed version: brought, sought, tough. OUGH section
The following changes are not product errors, but updates and clarifications that we have added to key concepts we teach as we continue to analyze words and spellings and learn more about our language. They are provided here for reference for those using earlier editions of our materials.
I: We now teach four sounds of this phonogram: /ĭ-ī-ē-y/ as in it, ivy, stadium, onion.
Updated in 2012.
Why the change? I says /ē/ in many words, such as patina, radio, and magazine. It is especially common in loan words from many languages, such as pizza, burrito and ski.
OU: We now teach a fifth sound of this phonogram, /ü/ as in could. The five sounds are /ow - ō - ö - ŭ - ü/, as in the sample words house, soul, group, country, could.
Updated in 2015.
Why the change? While the /ü/ is has not traditionally included as a sound of this phonogram in Orton-Gillinham programs and is only heard in three commonly known words, would, should, and could, these words are very common in English. We concluded that given the frequency of their use, /ü/ should be taught as a regular sound of the phonogram, making it easier for students to decode and spell these words.
Spelling Rule 7: We expanded this rule in 2012 to clarify where I may say /ē/. The rule now states:
7: Y says /ē/ only at the end of a multi-syllable word.
I says /ē/ at the end of a syllable that is followed by a vowel and at the end of foreign words.
Spelling Rule 31: We added Spelling Rule 31 in 2014 to teach students about schwa:
31.1 Any vowel may say one of the schwa sounds, /ŭ/ or /ĭ/, in an unstressed syllable or unstressed word.
31.2 O may say /ŭ/ in a stressed syllable next to W, TH, M, N, or V.
31.3 AR and OR may say their schwa sound, /er/, in an unstressed syllable.
Why the change? Schwa is the most common vowel sound in English, and as we learned more about it we concluded that giving students clear, explicit instruction about what it is, why it occurs in our speech, and where they will find schwa sounds in English words was very helpful in teaching reading and spelling and in clarifying how the language works! Learn more at Introducing Spelling Rule 31 on the LOE blog.
We continue to add new advanced phonograms as English continues to borrow new words from other languages and as we continue to make new observations in English spelling patterns. Most recently, we added 13 new advanced phonograms in 2015.